Losar – the Festival of highlander in Nepal
Losar is one of the main festivals in Nepal. The festival is celebrated in Buddhist religion follower community like Tamang, Sherpa, Gurung and Thakali etc. who live in the hilly and the mountainous region. The literal meaning of losar is New Year and follows the cycle of 12 years called Lohokor. Barga (Lo)is the special name given to each year and represented by different animals with its reputed attributes like mouse, cow, tiger, cat, garuda, serpent, horse, sheep, monkey, bird, dog and deer,. The cycle of animals is arranged in a single circle printed on a paper or a cloth. In Nepal when there was no calendar, the 12 rotation system was used to calculate peoples’ ages.
On the very day of the festival the people visit the monasteries and stupas to pray, worship and have blessing from the monks for happiness and wellbeing. The stupas, monasteries, houses rooftop and mountain top are decorated with new colorful prayer flags and colorful decorative items to bring peace and harmony to the nation. The ethnic people clad in their traditional costumes perform their cultural singing and dancing welcoming the New Year with feasts and family gathering. On the occasion of Loshar the Government of Nepal announces public holidays. So, the festival is celebrated in the full swing across the country.
There are three types of Losar in Nepal. Tamu Losar, Sonam Losar and Gyalpo Losar..
Tamu loshar:– Tamu losar is celebrated by the Gurungs community living in the laps of the Mountain Daulagiri and Mountain Annapurna. Gurungs are the indigenous people from Nepal and called Tamu, another name of Gurungs. Gurungs are famous in the Gorkha army for their bravery in the Ist World War and the 2nd World War. They are trusted, obedient and disciplined soldiers.
According to our Calendar, every year,15 Poush is the day to celebrate Tamu Loshar whereas in English calander, it falls in the month of December/January. The date signifies the end of the shorter days and the start of the longer days bringing warmness and charm.
On the eve of the festival, the lama, the spiritual teacher, establishes the statue of Buddha at each and every house and burn incense and commence the new year. Sel roti ( Rice circle bread), Achar ( Pickle), Meat, homemade rice Beer and Wine are served. People gather in the courtyard to celebrate the festive in the rural areas where as in cities people gather in a common place and parade around the cities rejoicing cultural procession to mark the New Year.
Sonam Loshar:- Sonam loshar is celebrated by the Tamangs community dwelling in the central highlands of Nepal as well around Kathmandu Valley. Tamangs are the indigenous people from Nepal. They have their own culture and dialects which distinguish them from other ethnic groups. Tamang means Horse Traders.
Sonam Loshar falls on the first new moon of the month Magh in Nepali Calendar, somewhere in the early January to mid February. So, the date varies in every Sonam Loshar. It is celebrated for 15 days although the first three days have the main celebrations.
The Tamangs clean and decorate their house welcoming the new year and visit the monasteries and stupas in their traditional costumes. Buddhist monasteries perform masked dances and rituals to drive away the negative forces and bring positive for the family and the nation.
In villages, Tamangs decorate their doors and windows with colorful paper and cloth and sweep their houses sweeping all the misfortunes and bringing Good Luck, Long Life and Happiness. Pork, duck, chicken and sweet desert with rice beer and wine are served in family gathering as in cities people gather in a common place and go around the cities rejoicing cultural procession.
Gyalpo Loshar:- Gyalpo Loshar is celebrated by the Sherpa community living in the Himalayan region in Nepal. They have distinct dialect and culture. They are world famous mountain climbers and the first one to scale Mount Everest in Nepal, the highest mountain in the world. People from Tamang, Bhutia and Yolmo too celebrate this festive.
It is the celebration of Tibetan New Year falls that in the month of February in English Calender. It is made up of twelve lunar months and losar begins on the first day of the first month. The day of Loshar begins on the 29th day of the 12th month calendar. It is celebrated typically for almost two weeks. Preparation of festive begins by making special Sherpa snack Khapse,a deep- fried pasty which is commonly eaten during the festive.
In ancient times, people went to the local spring to perform rituals of gratitude. Offerings were made to the Nagas, or water spirits, who activated the water element in the area, and smoke offerings were made to the local spirits associated with the natural world. These rituals took place for an entire month leading up to New Year day.
The houses are cleaned, specially the kitchen has to be cleaned properly because it is place where the family prepares the food. Chimneys are also cleaned from inside. Some special dishes are cooked for the new year ceremony. One of the dishes is a soup served with dumplings called Guthuk. The soup is made from meat, rice, sweet potatoes, wheat, Yak cheese, peas, green peppers, vermicelli and radishes. Sometimes, different hidden items are used in fillings for the dumplings. The items are chilies, wood, paper and pebbles. People comment on the nature (character) of the person on the findings inside his/her dumplings. If one finds wood means he has wooden heart, etc. This is done for enjoyment.
During the festival, people recall the struggle between the good and the evil in their ceremonial dance and Lama chants mantras and passes the fire torches through the crowds. People perform the traditional dance battle encounter between the king and the deer and amuse the spectators.
The date of the three Losars varies but the outcome is same. It is a festival of reunion of the families, relatives and friends to unite together for partying, merry making, exchanging gifts and greetings. So, the people could revitalise to start fresh with zeal for more progress and harmony in terms of spiritual, mental and physical.